Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Casa Batllo Essay Example

Casa Batllo Essay Example Casa Batllo Essay Casa Batllo Essay Casa Batllo At Paseig de Gracia 43, lies a sleeping giant of modernist architecture, Casa Batllo. Its appearance is as amorphous as the free flowing lines and shape of the building itself. Depending on the weather and lighting Casa Batllo may change colors and leave an entirely different impression on the viewer. One critic describes the building facade as, having the same effect as a throwing a stone into a pool of water lilies. [1] Many others believe the facade is an allegory for the Catalan legend of St. George, known for travels around medieval Spain slaying dragons. It is a testament to the celebrated architect, Antoni Gaudi, that one building could be so inspiring in so many ways. He accomplished this end by effectively sampling natural forms. The building is composed of disarming familiar natural forms, but they are arranged in a completely new and surreal way. Furthermore, these forms lend themselves to a myriad of individualized interpretations dependent upon the interpreter. All of this is just the beginning, in my opinion, of what makes Casa Batllo the premier building exemplifying the modernism movement in Barcelona. Casa Batllo was commissioned by Josep Batllo Casanovas in 1900 and constructed from 1904-1906. He employed Catalan architect, Antoni Gaudi, and building contractor, Josep Bayo Font. His original intention was demolishing the building and starting anew. However, Gaudi was able to convince Batllo that a refurbishment was possible. I believe the fact that Casa Batllo was a refurbishment and not a complete new construction served Gaudi well. It gave him the constraints and restrictions of an existing structure that challenged him to create the best solutions within the context of an existing problem. It also prevented some of the more criticized aspects of his designs from surfacing, as this was evident with the negative critical reaction to Casa Mila, or â€Å"La Pedrera. † It is important to understand the context of the building both geographically and historically. It rests on the corner of the â€Å"block of discord. † The â€Å"block of discord† extends down Passeig de Gracia between Carrer Arago and Consell de Cent. The block derives its satirical name from the dissimilar styles of the adjoining buildings within the block. Three buildings down from Gaudi’s masterpiece is Casa Lleo Morera, designed by Domenech I Montaner. Next door is Casa Mulleras, by Enric Sagnier Villanecchia. Continuing down the block there is Casa Delfina Bonet, by Marceliano Coquillat Llofriu. Finally, Josep Puig Caldafach designed Casa Amatller, which would later become the adjoining neighbor of Gaudi’s inspiring edifice. Casa Batllo was the last of the escalating architectural works that created a utopia of modernism. It was a â€Å"keeping up with the Jones† type of mentality. Each casa was built in attempt to upstage the neighbors. Gaudi and Battlo also had to circumvent several building codes to erect Gaudi’s vision which paid no attention to municipal building regulations. In one specific way, the bottom two floors of Casa Batllo extend an illegal sixty centimeters into the street. In 1904, Gaudi applied for building permits based on his vague plaster model of the proposed street facade. In 1906, the city ordered all work ceased due to of the lack of a construction permit. However, this was too late; construction was nearly completed. Fifteen days later, Josep Batllo was back at the city council ready to receive to permission to rent out the upper floors. The breathtaking exterior begins with the massive sandstone columns sampling from such natural forms as bones or flowers stems. The first three floors were where Gaudi concentrated most of his expensive materials, particularly the elaborately carved sandstone. The first two floors extend farther to the street than the others. Thus, this creates a leaning effect that is only accentuated the facade’s ceaseless undulations. Casa Batllo features no edges or right angles. Gaudi demolished the original bottom floors, but decided to use the existing facade of the building for the upper floors. However, it would in no way resemble the original; Gaudi had the old brick chipped away and replaced with a mosaic skin of lime, mortar, and broken pieces of tile and glass. This is a technique often used by Gaudi called Trancadis- meaning broken pieces. The balconies decrease in size as the eye ascends the edifice, and resemble eye and nose front of a human skull. They protrude from the facade’s most notable feature, its rippling covering. Each broken piece of mosaic was directed to its destination by Gaudi in the street, acting as maestro of the construction. This produces the overall effect is that of a shimmering soft underbelly of a serpent’s skin. As one critic described it, â€Å"When the sun hits the front of the building during the day, the facade magically materializes and dematerializes in a celebration of color. † [2] This is all crowned by a hard tile roof that swoops and dives with the facade. Gaudi emphasized the curves and bends of the roof by using the color and shade of the tile to specifically accent the roof’s movements. It should be noted that the roof does a superb job of capping the near formless facade by producing horizontally undulating lines that effectively run perpendicular to the other waves. This provides the necessary contrast to the free form facade; thus, giving it shape, as a beach or harbor gives shape and form to the sea. Finally, Gaudi concluded the facade on top with a medieval turret topped by a Catalan cross. The cross is the highest point of the building. The cross is also the object of some debate and speculation as to Gaudi’s message with this building. The cross is said to be the handle of St. George’s sword. This would make the turret the shaft of the blade. The roof is representative of the hard skin of a dragon’s back, and the facade is its soft underbelly. The sandstone columns are the bones of the dragon’s victims, so are the balconies, which are skulls. Thus, the entire facade is symbolic of St. George, the patron saint of Catalunya. This theory may not be as is improbably as it seems. Symbolism was a major part of the modernism movement. Gaudi was almost obsessive about the use of symbols, which will become abundantly clear in last years of his life and his work on the Sagrada Familia. The interior of Casa Batllo is equally impressive. Its greatest technical achievement is the superb use of natural light. The exaggerated windows facing the street earned Casa Batllo the nickname â€Å"the house of yawns. † Gaudi also expanded the existing patio and added huge skylight. The elevator shaft and stairwell also ran through the center of patio. All of this was part of a brilliant solution to the problem of evenly distributing light throughout the house. Beyond technical solutions, Casa Batllo instills visitors with a surreal feeling. The interior mirrors the exterior; again, Gaudi deliberately removed angled features, such as the walls, and replaced them with curved shapes. The spaces inside are open and expansive. Particularly, the living room may be even further expanded by simply opening two large wooden doors on both sides. Some specifically dreamlike features are the stained glass windows. They are framed in non-traditional shapes of beautiful metalwork, presumably connected to Gaudi’s family heritage as metalworkers, and the elaborately carved sandstone. They give off a palpable floral sensation from within the house, in addition to their obvious technical benefits. All of this in concert creates a truly dreamlike state when one is in the house itself. Gaudi speaks to us still from Casa Batllo. However, he in not speaking Catalan, but he is speaking to us in an organic language easily recognized by anyone familiar with nature. Gaudi said, â€Å"Everything that any architect could need†¦is already in natural forms in nature. † This is surely the source he referenced when designing Casa Batllo. In conclusion, Casa Batllo is the premier modernist building in Barcelona. This is because of Gaudi’s brilliant technical solutions, his use of new materials and techniques, his eclectic sampling of other architectural styles such as arabesque and medieval, his voracious quoting of natural forms, and heavy use of symbolism. However, the truly impressive thing about Casa Batllo is not the presence of these individual elements, but the unequivocal unity with which they were assembled by the all too masterful architect, Antoni Gaudi. [1] casabatllo. es/. History of Casa Batllo. [2] Grossman, Rachel. â€Å"Inside Casa Battlo†. ArchitectureWeek

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Essays - English-language Films

Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Research paper on Mark Twains Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Mark Twains Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a novel about a young boys coming of age in the Missouri of the mid-1800^s. It is the story of Hucks struggle to win freedom for himself and Jim, a Negro slave. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was Mark Twain^s greatest book, and a delighted world named it his masterpiece. To nations knowing it well - Huck riding his raft in every language men could print - it was Americas masterpiece (Allen 259). It is considered one of the greatest novels because it conceals so well Twains opinions within what is seemingly a childs book. Though initially condemned as inappropriate material for young readers, it soon became prized for its recreation of the Antebellum South, its insights into slavery, and its depiction of adolescent life. The novel resumes Hucks tale from the Adventures of Tom Sawyer, which ended with Huck^s adoption by Widow Douglas. But it is so much more. Into this book the world called his masterpiece, Mark Twain put his prime purpose, one that branched in all his writing: a plea for humanity, for the end of caste, and of its cruelties (Allen 260). Twain, whose real name is Samuel Langhorne Clemens, was born in Florida, Missouri, in 1835. During his childhood he lived in Hannibal, Missouri, a Mississippi river port that was to become a large influence on his future writing. It was Twains nature to write about where he lived, and his nature to criticize it if he felt it necessary. As far his structure, Kaplan said, In plotting a book his structural sense was weak; intoxicated by a hunch, he seldom saw far ahead, and too many of his stories peter out from the authors fatigue or surfeit. His wayward techniques came close to free association. This method served him best after he had conjured up characters from long ago, who on coming to life wrote the narrative for him, passing from incident to incident with a grace their creator could never achieve in manipulating an artificial plot (Kaplan 16). His best friend of forty years William D. Howells, has this to say about Twains writing. So far as I know, Mr. Clemens is the first writer to use in extended writing the fashion we all use in thinking, and to set down the thing that comes into his mind without fear or favor of the thing that went before or the thing that may be about to follow (Howells 186). The main character, Huckleberry Finn, spends much time in the novel floating down the Mississippi River on a raft with a runaway slave named Jim. Before he does so, however, Huck spends some time in the fictional town of St. Petersburg where a number of people attempt to influence him. Huck^s feelings grow through the novel. Especially in his feelings toward his friends, family, blacks, and society. Throughout the book, Huck usually looks into his own heart for guidance. Moral intuition is the basis on which his character rests. Before the novel begins, Huck Finn has led a life of absolute freedom. His drunken and often missing father has never paid much attention to him; his mother is dead and so, when the novel begins, Huck is not used to following any rules. In the beginning of the book Huck is living with the Widow Douglas and her sister, Miss Watson. Both women are fairly old and are incapable of raising a rebellious boy like Huck Finn. However, they attempt to make Huck into what the y believe will be a better boy. The Widow Douglas she took me for her son, and allowed she would sivilize me; but it rough living in the house all the time considering how dismal regular and decent the widow was in all her ways^ (Twain 11). This process includes making Huck go to school, teaching him various religious facts, and making him act in a way that the women find socially acceptable. In this first chapter, Twain gives us the first direct example of communicating his feelings through Huck Finn: ^After supper, the Widow Douglas got out her book

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Literature Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 4

Literature Review - Essay Example The use of medical imaging is on the rise and with that the potential risk for safety of the patient (Fazel et al, 2009). The relevance of these concerns can be gauged from reports of patient exposure to excessive radiation doses in medical imaging tests, like computed tomography (CT) scans. In essence the blame for the exposure to excessive radiations, posing the risk for radiation cancer, stems from too frequent use of medical imaging on the same patient and improper handling of the medical imaging machines (Louis, 2009). It is against this background that it becomes important for the Medical Imaging Technologists (MIT) to be fully aware of the legislations and laws of the land that govern the use of medical imaging, to ensure that they do not transgress these legislations and laws and find themselves facing legal action. The Radiation Safety Act 1999 was put in place with the main objective of protecting individuals and the environment from the hazards associated with certain sources of radiation and harmful non-ionization radiation. This focus of the Act is the reason for choosing it. The Act makes it mandatory for people to be protected from exposure to ionizing radiation unless it is deemed essential, through the three processes of justification, limitation and optimisation. The process of justification calls for the evaluation of the benefits to risk involved in the radiation practice, so that exposure is used only when the benefits outweigh the risks. The process of limitation has implications for minimising radiation dose exposure or employing techniques to achieve exposure to radiation that is below the acceptable levels and thereby minimize the health risks posed to the patient. The process of optimisation requires minimizing the health risks to individuals through the lesser degree of expos ure to radiation, by ensuring the optimal use of medical imaging (Government of

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Women and Child Welfare and Development Ministry Essay

Women and Child Welfare and Development Ministry - Essay Example A classic use of color technique has been significantly and vigorously applied in the dresses worn by the characters in the ad to demarcate between the sexes – male and female – in a distinctive manner. However, the simple but inappropriate words used in the ad are particularly catchy (the hook). The positioning (layout) of the parents on the sides with their daughter at the center portrays a protective and guidance role bestowed upon parents to the upbringing of their young ones. The relative sizes of the images in the ad are unequal. The parents are relatively taller than their daughter (placed at the center), perhaps to reinforce their positions as the center of admiration and modeling. The inclusive features of the ad authoritatively expose (purpose) to the parents/guardians (the target audience) the likely inflicted injury to young brains impacted by what they hear around them. Children, especially those at the age of school beginners, are usually very attentive to the happenings around them. As a matter of fact, parents/guardians become the initial locus of attention to their children before spreading their wings during later stages of development. Thus, whatever they do or say has the possibility of having a lasting impact in the life of a child.   Being the target audience, the inappropriate words in the ad are specifically associated with them – adults. Indeed as expected, the perceptiveness of a young mind is clearly at work: picking and retaining whatever crosses the ear into the brain (role of the text). Through the ad, a lad pours out what is in the mind: a clear indication that what is absorbed from the surrounding environment influences thoughts. Evidently, a child is not just a passive member of a family but an active partaker of what the environment offers (message). Without a doubt, the ad calls on the parents/guardians (message) to keep watch over their utterance to avoid imparting negative traits to those under their

Friday, January 24, 2020

Holding On to Reality :: Albert Borgmann Philosophy Technology Essays

Holding On to Reality Professor and philosopher Albert Borgmann proposes a respectful balance between current technology and the way it interacts with society in his recent book, Holding on to Reality: The Nature of Information at the Turn of the Millennium. Like many technological theorists, Borgmann ponders, "the deeper question of whether the recent and imminent flood of information is good for anybody" (4). In response to this uncertainty, the author devises a theory and ethics of information with the intention of rectifying society's often-troubling relationship with science and technology. Borgmann's theory divides information into three distinct parts based on the way they affect reality - natural information illuminates reality, cultural information transforms reality, and technological information displaces reality. To understand these categories, and how they highlight key developments in information technology, it is important to know what the author means when using the term "information." In Borgmann's theory, information is ordered around the relationship between a person, a sign, and a thing. A person uses his or her intelligence - both native and acquired mental ability - to place a framework of context around a messenger or signal, known as a sign, in order to understand the message, or thing, which is presented to them (38). To provide an illustration: Imagine yourself on the shore of your local beach. As you are putting down your towel, you notice a trail of deep marks in the sand, stretching a great distance down the shoreline. Since you have been to the beach before, you know that these marks are footprints. You also know that if these were old footprints, the tide would have washed them away. After a moment of thought, you interpret this trail to mean that other human beings are present farther along the beach. In this case, the sign (footprints) communicates to us the presence of a thing (humans). Since the recipient of the sign (you), has the intelligence f rom previous experience or education to know what footprints are and what happens to them, you are able to place the sign in its proper context, and understand the signal of footprints to mean the presence of human beings. If we could not formulate a relationship between the footprints in the previous example and the presence of human beings, the footprints would be just another piece of formless matter and energy. The meanings we construct out of the signs and messages that we receive are important because they help us to make sense of our environments, identities, and realities.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Group Working Positivity

Group Work Participating in Group Work Participating in group work is an important skill to develop as it is something you will do in your student life and in your working career. Job advertisements often highlight ‘good team worker’ as a crucial skill for potential recruits. These may involve a group presentation or a group report followed by a reflective piece of writing and/or an individual assignment. Take notes or record your lecturer’s assignment briefing. Module Handbooks usually includes the assessment criteria (see Appendix 1) so it is important that you work well together to achieve success.It will be quite obvious to your lecturer whether you have worked well as a team and whether you prepared your assignment as a group. Groups formed by students to discuss case studies or discuss an assignment can help improve your grades and make the task more manageable. Keep a journal and record your progress, hindrances, issues and successes, plus any pitfalls to a void next time! Working in a TEAM? Together Everyone Achieves More Successful group work will involve: †¢ Clear, shared goals. †¢ Good communication amongst members of the group. †¢ Agreed ways of working towards the group goals. Support and cooperation, rather than competitiveness. †¢ Listening to one another. †¢ Autonomous team working. †¢ Arrangements for monitoring progress and taking corrective action, if necessary. †¢ Keep to deadlines – it is unfair to let others down who are depending on you, in order for the whole group to succeed. †¢ High levels of motivation. †¢ Plan – do – review. Why work in groups? Team building is vital to any organisation and by working in groups you can: †¢ Share resources. †¢ Share ideas and information. †¢ Share abilities. †¢ Learn from and help each other. Stimulate creativity and innovation. †¢ Increase motivation. †¢ Solve complex problems. †¢ C an help you get better grades. You will need to identify your strengths, which you can contribute to the group. You will also identify your weaknesses, and ideally the group will support and help you work on turning these weaknesses into strengths. IH have some useful DVDs on group work that may be helpful to watch (Assert yourself: learning to be assertive; Building the perfect team: Belbin’s team-role theory in action; Does the team work? Improving effectiveness through teamwork; It’s a deal!Win-win negotiation deals; Team leading: how to become an effective team leader; The great communicator: communication skills for all). Getting started †¢ It is up to the members of the group to make the first contact with one another. Exchange telephone numbers and email addresses so the group can meet. †¢ An icebreaker task is a good way to make each member feel comfortable with others that s/he does not know (see Appendix 2). †¢ Ensure you understand the instruc tions in the assignment. Each group member should have read the assignment brief and prepare to discuss it at the first meeting. Break the assignment into practicable chunks. Agree deadlines to complete each part. †¢ The group needs to compile and agree set ground rules (see Appendix 3). These rules can be reviewed and renegotiated from time to time – keeping useful rules in practice, amending or creating new ones as solutions to unanticipated problems that arise. †¢ Set realistic aims and targets within a given timeframe that all members understand and agree with. †¢ Negotiate roles and tasks: Who will be the leader? Who will do what? When? With what resources?Allocate tasks according to the experience, expertise or strength of each member. However, task allocation can also be allocated to build on a student’s inexperience and areas of weakness. †¢ Establish a regular programme of meetings to review task progress and group process. The group should keep in regular contact so plan where you will meet. Will it be at the University, will you alternate between group members’ homes, will you set up a site in ‘Your Groups’ in StudyNet or a group in Facebook or any other social networking site? †¢ Agree to keep good records (Group Log of meetings etc. see Appendix 4). You might also want to keep a blog, for self reflection of group work. It is compulsory at Level 5 and Level 6 to keep records of group work. Each member of the group needs good personal management skills and good time management skills to complete their part of the task, including taking corrective action. This means being honest with the rest of the group – let them know if there is a problem, seek help from the group, share information with others. The group needs to make a contract based on the above points and stick to it so ground rules are obeyed.Establish Group Roles In order for the group to function successfully to achieve thei r goal and to maximise the group’s time in meetings, roles have to be taken on by each member of the group. Belbin (1981 & 1993, cited in Blundel, 2004) and others have identified numerous roles within a team, usually in keeping with individual personality and strengths. Many university student groups have five or six people, and their suggested roles are below. These roles may be rotated amongst members or a member holds onto his/her role for the duration of the assignment.Whatever the size of your group, ensure that someone carries out the following: |Team role |Contribution | |Project/team leader/ Chair |Organises rooms, agendas and chairs meetings, co-ordinates and keeps the group focused and involved. Stops the group from | |person |going off at a tangent. Initiates, leads and drives the group towards achieving their task. | |Innovator &/or Evaluator |Creates novel ideas and solutions to support the task. | |Assesses ideas and proposals. | |Investigator/ Info. gatherer | Collects information and resources to support the task and the group takes up and develops his/her contributions. | |Team worker/ harmoniser |Encourages others, fosters team morale and reduces negativity. | |Record keeper |Keeps records, shares information. Provides facts, ideas, feedback, and/or alternative proposals to finish the task. | | |Summarises what has been done. Lists what else needs to be done to complete the task. |Completer |Keeps track on objectives meeting deadlines making sure the group is on target to complete the task and achieve the goals | | |set. Judging whether the task is being completed successfully and efficiently | Group dynamics All group work consists of both task and process elements. Attention is often focused on the task, i. e. a report or presentation, and the process is neglected (how you get the task done, i. e. working in groups), which can be a major reason for ineffective group working.Individuals need to focus on the group needs rather than the ir own personal needs. Encourage and support others and try to facilitate harmony. Self-seeking roles to avoid are: dominator, cynic, clown, aggressor, blocker, group humourist, recognition seeker, avoider, politician, etc. (based on Benne & Sheats, 1948 cited in Barker et al, 1991). Keep to the responsibilities you were given – do what you said you would do. Ensure there is co-operation between members, if the team is to succeed. Listen to one another and acknowledge one another’s ideas and suggestions. Listen actively and you will hear.Buzan (2000) states that listening is a top management skill. So improve your listening skills now and you’ll be more prepared for any job interview! Listen and DON’T: Pretend to pay attention – do so! Do other things at the same time. Decide it’s uninteresting. Have your mobile on in meetings. Hogg the conversation – be aware of others’ need to talk. Be distracted by someone’s way of sp eech or mannerism. Get over-involved and so lose the thread of conversation. Let emotion filled words arouse personal anger, antagonism, etc. Focus on distractions instead of what’s said.Take linear one colour notes (instead, use different coloured pens, draw diagrams, mind maps, lists, tables). Just listen for facts (also consider the speaker’s emotions, feelings, body language). Turn off when it is complex or difficult. Plan what you’re going to say next. All group members need to agree any changes, e. g. to meetings, content of the assignment, etc. if the group is to be successful. Keep to the deadlines given. If you cannot manage your time well, be aware that you are letting others down. Meet and keep in contact regularly, where progress and any changes are tracked.Cohesiveness, good communication, commitment and cooperation are essential. Misconduct, unethical behaviour, rule breaking, must be avoided. At times the group will be affected by pressures of dea dlines, absence of an influential member, a traumatic experience, or a new member joining. Disperse any cliques that may form. There should be no ‘outsiders’ involved in the group or have input in the group. Antagonistic or contentious individuals need to be dealt with by the group early on, so conflict is avoided. Consensus in decision making helps make all group members feel they have a say. Try the questionnaire ‘Are We a Team? in Appendix 5 to assess the extent to which your group is cohesive and how well you work together, at some stage in the second half of the process. Groups can access a small room for their meetings, by booking a study room. Virtual meetings may form part of your plan and if so, you need to make sure that everyone has suitable access. An agenda has to be agreed by the group for each meeting, otherwise the group may waste valuable time during the meeting by chatting or straying from discussing the issues. Decide how long you will spend dis cussing each item. Respect one another’s opinion – everyone is entitled to their say.A ‘talking stick’ could be used during meetings, where the person holding the stick gets to speak. Others must listen until another person gets to hold the stick, and has his/her say. Another useful idea for effective discussion at meetings is to follow de Bono’s Six Hats Model (1985). See Appendix 6 for the full details. The ‘6 Thinking Hats’ helps generate critical thinking, to brainstorm or reflect, as these six ‘hats’ are metaphors for thinking about different aspects of a task/experience, at different times. Break down your thinking into 6 areas; use all six hats, to explore effectively and thoroughly with less confusion.De Bono considers that the emphasis should be on designing a way forward all the time. The hats are directions of how to think and not descriptions of what has happened. He says this parallel thinking method allows the subject to be explored fully by considering one view at a time and accepting that they can be viewed as parallel, not necessary contradictory. It can be used constructively by all cultures. It allows you to find positive or constructive elements in negative or difficult situations and so helps to create a sense of perspective about it.A variant of this technique is to look at problems from the point of view of different professionals, or roles, or customers. Evaluate your progress as you go and keep a record of the meetings, which will be useful later when you have to carry out reflective writing based on the group work. If a group member is going to be absent (with good reason), let the group know beforehand. Ask questions of the other group members in order for you to proceed with your task or to clarify an issue. Be honest with peers – if you do not know something, say so or if you are not on target with your work, tell the group.The group will not function if everyone is not working openly, together towards the same goal. Behaviours serving task needs: †¢ Clarifying objectives †¢ Seeking information from group members †¢ Giving relevant information †¢ Proposing ideas and building on ideas or proposals contributed by others †¢ Summarising progress so far †¢ Evaluating progress against group objectives †¢ Time keeping †¢ Identifying a group member to take responsibility to ensure agreed actions are taken †¢ Setting up a way of reviewing progress after the meeting Behaviours serving group needs: Encourage members to contribute and value all contributions. †¢ Check that you have understood a point by summarising that understanding, before giving reasons for disagreeing †¢ Help to resolve conflict without making others feel rejected †¢ Change your view in light of arguments or information given by others †¢ Help to control those who talk too much †¢ Praising group progress towards obj ectives †¢ Dissuading group members from negative behaviour Behaviours interfering with task or group needs: †¢ Not preparing for the meeting/not doing your job Talking too much and/or focusing your attention on yourself †¢ Reacting emotionally to points made †¢ Attacking others points by ridicule or unreasoned comments †¢ Not listening to others †¢ Interrupting others and/or talking at the same time as them †¢ Introducing a completely different point of view while productive discussion of something else is taking place †¢ Chatting to others privately during the meeting †¢ Using humour to excess †¢ Withdrawing from the group and/or refusing to participate †¢ Being late for meetings/not turning up at all/leaving early Cameron (2005) BrainstormingBrainstorming is a useful way of generating ideas as well as problem-solving. A ‘facilitator’ needs to be appointed for the session. S/he will write everyone’s ideas d own and encourage all members to participate. Then, collect ideas from all members of the group. Ideas or opinions should not be criticised or rejected at this stage. Acknowledge and record all ideas and suggestions. Once the brainstorming has been exhausted, move on to link ideas and themes, and synthesise them. The group should then agree on which ideas should remain and which should be discarded. Using Post-its and Flip ChartsPutting things down on paper is an essential part of keeping the group going. †¢ Brainstorming session: one member of the group puts ideas on the flipchart OR individuals note their ideas on post-its and these are collected and examined. Ideas are easily prioritised using post-its as they are easily re-arranged. †¢ Resolve conflict: each member notes their opinion on a post-it and posts it on the board. The group can examine and consider the points made by the group. †¢ Equal opportunities: all members have a ‘say’ by writing down their ideas and suggestions, rather than a dominant vocal member ‘taking over’ the session.Virtual Group Work It is not always easy for groups to meet regularly; however, an arrangement must be made to keep in regular contact. There is no excuse if students cannot meet face-to-face, because they can meet virtually. There are a number of ways they can do this: You could chose email updates, a which anyone can set up through ‘Your Groups’ in the top black menu. For instructions to set up a group discussion forum, see Appendix 7. The wiki facility in ‘Your Groups’ could be a useful way of developing your work in such a way that all members have access to it.See YouTube – Wikis in Plain English for a quick demonstration of a wiki in use for a collaborative group task. Or you could all agree to use a social networking site, such as Facebook, to work on. Lecturers sometimes monitor and assess the level of communication that occurs in these gr oups. E-mails can be sent to group members, with files attached to share your part of the task with the other group members. Note: Virtual group work should NOT replace regular face-to-face meetings; rather it should be used in addition to it and as a way of keeping in contact between meetings to support one another.Group Diversity Be aware that some people initiate ideas, motivate, co-ordinate, maintain standards, seek opinions, and keep the group working towards their goal. Personality clashes, cross-cultural differences, discrimination, bullying and blocking people out can be issues that arise in groups. Difficult team members can be aggressive, try to be the centre of attention, waste time joking around, compete with other members, reject ideas without good reason, be ‘hard done by’. Cross-cultural differences can sometimes cause conflict.Hofstede (1991) and Morrison et al, (1994, cited in Levin, 2005: 89-91) identify cultural traits that may cause conflict: |Indivi dualism Vs Collectivism | |People brought up in individualist cultures see themselves as individuals, taking it for granted that they can say what they think, take decisions on | |their own and confront others with their view. | |People brought up in a collectivist culture view themselves as members of a family and/or wider group.To them, the preservation of harmony within the | |group is very important. Decisions are made by consensus within the group and confrontation is avoided. | |Tolerance of Uncertainty | |In some cultures there are authority figures to whom everyone else defers, everyone knows their place and rote learning is the method of education. | |People from this culture would feel uncomfortable in situations of uncertainty, or when they do not know where their place is and what the rules and | |regulations are, and where there is no ‘right answer’. |On the other hand, there are cultures where authority comes under challenge, and independent and critical thinking are encouraged. People do not have a| |clearly defined place in society, rules and expectations of a ‘right answer’ are absent but this is seen as an opportunity and a challenge. | |Issues of Embarrassment and ‘loss of face’ | |Embarrassment and loss of face are to be found in all cultures.However, the reasons for embarrassment vary. People from some cultures may find it hard| |to admit they are unable to perform a particular task whereas a person from another culture would not be embarrassed by this. Revealing emotion may be | |unnatural; to express disagreement; to refuse something; to be able to understand something said to you more than once; to be discovered to have lied; | |and/or to renegotiate an agreement in the hope of getting a better deal. |In some cultures losing face happens when you feel challenged, when your contribution to a discussion is not acknowledged, if someone makes a joke at | |your expense or if you suffer a public-let-do wn. What one person feels as teasing, another might feel it as insulting. | |Gender Issues | |In every culture roles and places are assigned to men and women. People from different cultures have different assumptions, expectations and habits | |towards men and women.Some men may find it difficult to deal with assertive women and some women may find it difficult to be assertive. Often people | |feel more comfortable in same gender groups where they can say what they think and feel. | |Codes of Behaviour | |There are codes of behaviour in all cultures. Certain behaviour is seen as acceptable in one culture but unacceptable behaviour in another and is | |viewed as rude, immodest, lacking respect, etc.Some examples are: | |Standing very close to someone you are talking to | |Gesturing a lot when talking (moving your hands and head) | |Expressing impatience | |Confrontational behaviour, especially outright disagreement | |Interrupting someone who is speaking | |Boasting | |Silence during a conversation. Failure to respond immediately may cause discomfort or may imply agreement or disagreement. | |Failure to make eye contact with someone who is speaking or listening. This could be mistaken for insincerity or lack of attentiveness, whereas it is | |intended to show deference. |Lack of punctuality | Other differences may be how a person is treated according to their age, social status, occupation and/or educational background. Working with people of other cultures and ethnic backgrounds is a great opportunity to learn about others, and indeed learn about yourself. Make ‘understanding group members’ backgrounds and points of view’ an explicit group objective. Care will have to be taken with group rules (ways of operating) where less assertive students will have their say, and regular checks on how members feel about other members’ responses to their contributions. Addressing ConflictDue to groups involving people of different personal ities, cultures, gender, etc. it is quite common for conflict to occur. Problems should be discussed in the group, i. e. a group member not working, non-attending group member, etc. and decisions on how to proceed should be considered in light of the ground rules set in the first meeting. This needs to be resolved without creating bad feeling amongst group members. Resolution is achieved by addressing the issues through discussion amongst the whole group. Do not leave problems to fester and grow. It is important that the group tries to address this conflict themselves before involving a third party, i. e. your lecturer or an ASU adviser.Here are some steps to try to resolve the conflict within the group, before seeking a negotiator: †¢ Set a rule of how disagreement will be resolved, i. e. if someone is not participating, if someone misses meetings, if there is a personality clash, etc. †¢ Encourage an environment of openness and honesty – say if you are unhappy/wri te it in the group site. Be honest about where you are at with your task. †¢ Agree for all members to participate fully – always put your view forward. Consider other members’ feelings. †¢ Agree to put group needs before personal needs. Others are depending on you to provide your input and complete your task. †¢ You do not have to like people to work with them – however, you have to learn to work with them in the group.This will help you to develop good interpersonal skills. †¢ Develop and practice listening skills – everyone deserves to be heard, even if you disagree with their point-of-view. †¢ Keep to deadlines – others are depending on you. †¢ Keep track of progress, so things do not fall behind and thus putting the group under pressure. †¢ Establish the nature of the disagreement. Do members perceive facts differently? Do they disagree about ways of working? Are members operating with different values? By exp loring the cause of the disagreement, the group may be able to come to a better understanding of the task and its context. Solutions can then be suggested by the group.In dealing with conflict you need to use your talking, listening, assertiveness and interpersonal skills to reach a resolution. Try not to give up until you have resolved the issue(s) as a group. If you are unable to resolve the conflict, then you MUST speak to your lecturer about it. Do NOT put it off until your report is due in or until the day of presentation. Group Presentations It is important that the group present themselves as a team. This can be done in the following way: †¢ Prepare the slides using the same format and ensure the presentation is well structured. The team will need to meet regularly to ensure this occurs. †¢ Practice the presentation together so you can ensure your presentation is completed within the time limit.By practicing regularly as a group, the presentation should be coherent, polished and well executed on the day. †¢ Have a back up plan incase one of the group is absent on the day; is unable to present their section or takes too long presenting their section of the talk. †¢ The first presenter should introduce the whole group and say what they will talk about. †¢ Be supportive to other students in your group while they are presenting by looking interested; using positive non-verbal communication, i. e. nod; help with using visual aids. You should not sit down after your section has been done. †¢ At the hand-over stage, the current speaker must introduce the next presenter and what they will say.The next person to speak should thank the previous speaker before beginning his/her part of the presentation. Group Reports †¢ Advice given above on group roles, meetings, etc. applies when preparing your report. †¢ You need to meet regularly to assess progress and to put the tasks together. †¢ The report must be compiled as one piece of work, rather than having obvious separate parts of different font styles and writing style. At the end†¦ Ensure the group meet before presenting/submitting their work to check that the work is well structured, clear and coherent and shows that you worked closely as a group. Submit on time. Reflection on Group WorkYou may be asked to reflect on what happened, your role within the group, what you have learned from it and what you need to work on in the future. Ensure you have clarified with the lecturer what is expected of you and what the assessment criteria is. Complete the reflection by considering the following questions: †¢ What went well? Why? †¢ What went wrong? Why? †¢ How did you solve it? †¢ What would you do differently next time? †¢ What contribution did you make? †¢ What did you learn from others? †¢ What did the other members learn from you? †¢ What strengths did you identify? Did the group utilise your strengths? â € ¢ What weaknesses did you identify? How did you and the group address them? Did you improve on your weaknesses to turn them into strengths? †¢ What do you plan to do about the weaknesses you have identified? †¢ How does this link to the theories on successful group work? Who did what, when, problems or difficulties encountered, etc. Analyse the group activities: (What was the group trying to achieve? What were the different views? Who said what? What was left unsaid? How were decisions made? How did you feel about this? How did the others feel? What was the energy levels and motivation like? Did anything unexpected happen? ). Action planning: Identify what you contributed to the group, difficulties you experienced, and from this assess your strengths, weaknesses and action points.Focus on critical incidences – which were turning points for the group or which demonstrate particular difficulties / successes. Use the checklist in Appendix 9 at the end of each meeti ng to reflect on strengths and weaknesses. Avoid Academic Misconduct When participating in group work, you must avoid any academic misconduct, i. e. you must not plagiarise (use another’s work as your own by not acknowledging it by making reference to the author’s work in your assignment) or you are not accused of collusion (you work it not your own individual work but rather it has been undertaken jointly with another students, where you shared ideas or your material with another student and their work (or any part of it) is a replica of yours).Academic misconduct is identified when your coursework is passed a software programme that detects and identifies cheating. Such misconduct can occur when you ‘share’ your work with another student, where you may send him/her an electronic version of your work, share materials or you do your write-up together. References Barker, L. , Wahlers, K. , Watson, K. & Kibler, R. (1991) Groups in Process. 4th edn. New Jerse y: Prentice Hall. Belbin, R. M. (1993) Team Roles at Work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Belbin, R. M. (1981) Management Teams: why they succeed or fail. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Benne, K. D. & Sheats, P. (1948) ‘Functional Roles of group Members. ’ Journal of Social Issues. 4. pp. 41-49. Blundel, R. 2004) Effective Organisational Communication. 2nd edn. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Buzan, T (2000) Use Your Head. London: BBC Active Cameron, S. (2005) The Business Student’s Handbook. 3rd edn. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. De Bono, E (1985) Six Thinking Hats. Harmondsworth: Viking Elluminate (2010) Window Descriptions. Available at: http://www. elluminate. com [Accessed: 18 October, 2010] Hofstede, G. (1991) Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind. London: McGrawHill. Levin, P. (2005) Successful Teamwork! London: Open University Press. Morrison, T. , Conaway, W. A. , Borden, G. A. (1994) Kiss, Bow or Shake Hands: How to do Business in Six ty Countries. Adams Media.Race, P. (2000) 500 Tips on Group Learning. London: Kogan Page. Stuart, R. , (1998) Team Developmental Games for Trainers. Gower Publishing Limited. In Levin, P. (2005) Successful Teamwork! London: Open University Press. Appendix 1 – Assessment of Group Work Group work is not always formally assessed. However, in some modules at the overall assessment of a group report or group presentation may include an assessment of the process of preparation. This may include the following considerations: †¢ Progress of preparation (e. g. meeting of milestones; numbers of meetings; progress of preparation) †¢ Relative inputs of members of the group (e. g. ocumentation of input; peer assessment of input) †¢ Roles of group members in preparation (e. g. project manager; reporter, etc) †¢ Resolution of conflict situations †¢ The level of team building Appendix 2 – Icebreakers The following icebreakers are a quick way of helping members of a group get to know one another a little better. †¢ What’s you name? Members of a group tell what their name is and provide the group with a little background of why they were given that name. †¢ What I like and what I hate – Members of the group introduce themselves and share a like and a dislike they have, i. e. I love coffee but I hate people who talk too much, I love jazz music but I hate queuing, etc. †¢ What’s your hidden secret?Each member of the group introduces themselves and tells the group one thing not many people know about them, i. e. I met Madonna, I play the piano, I dived in the Red Sea, I walked the Great Wall of China, I ate frogs legs once, etc. †¢ Triumphs, traumas and trivia* – Each member of the group identifies a triumph, a trauma and a trivia about themselves, which they will share with the group, i. e. I won a gold medal for running at school, I was in a car accident when I was 12, I do crosswords; I won ? 10 in the lotto last year, I lost my suitcases when I came to the UK, I tell terrible jokes; etc. *Note: Care needs to be taken with this activity as deep feelings can emerge about traumas suffered. Interview your neighbour* – Group splits into pairs and one member of each pair spends about three minutes listening to the other tell some of the above mentioned information, as well as the person’s background information. Notes should be taken. Swap roles for next three minutes. Then each person feeds back to the group some information about their neighbour. * Note: Care needs to be taken not to ask questions that may intrude on an individual’s privacy and the amount of information s/he wishes to divulge about themselves to the group. †¢ What do you already know about the topic? Members of the group jot down the most important thing they know about the topic on a Post-it and put it on a flipchart. Members can read what they know about the topic or the group c an read it from the flipchart. This is a useful starting point for the task.Adapted from: Race (2000:37-39) Appendix 3 – Ground Rules Here are some suggested rules to be set by a group – these are by no means the only rules a group can adopt. Honesty and truthfulness is fostered in the group. †¢ You do not have to like someone to work with them. Members have to work together despite their personal feelings about individuals in the group. Affirm collective responsibility. Once issues have been raised, aired, and solutions provided, the group lives with the decisions made by the group. †¢ Everyone listens while someone speaks and everyone has a say. Members are entitled to their opinions, which should not be ignored, put down or belittled by others. Full participation is required. All members need to participate in discussion, complete their tasks, etc. †¢ Fair share – everyone participates equally in the task. †¢ Meet deadlines. †¢ Agree and set up a regular programme of meetings. †¢ Keep records. Record progress and milestones reached, minutes, agendas, self reflective logs. †¢ Flexibility in meeting members’ needs. Sometimes a member’s personal needs may interfere with the group working – allowances must be made. Dealing with conflicts in the group. Appendix 4 – Group Work Log Module: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________Assessment Aim: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Group Objectives set: 1. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________________ ____ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _______ __________________________________________________________________________ The group should agree roles for each of the members at the beginning of the task and this group log should be complete by the end of the task. |Member’s Name |Role/s |Assigned Tasks |Deadline date |Deadline met |No of meetings attended |Individual comments | |1 | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | |2 | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | |3 | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | |4 | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | |5 | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | | | | |- | | | | | Details of all group meetings |Meeting Date |Discussion topic/s |Actions & deadlines agreed |Attendees signatures/date | |1. | | |1. | | | |2. | | | | |3. | | | | |4. | | | | |5. | |2. | | |1. | | | |2. | | | | |3. | | | | |4. | | | | |5. | |3. | | |1. | | | |2. | | | | |3. | | | | |4. | | | | |5. | |4. | | |1. | | | |2. | | | | |3. | | | | |4. | | | | |5. | |5. | | |1. | | | |2. | | | | |3. | | | | |4. | | | | |5. | |6. | | |1. | | | |2. | | | | |3. | | | | |4. | | | | |5. | Appendix 5 – Questionnaire: Are We a Team? First, each individual member of the group fills in the questionnaire below. Then the sheets are collected and the scores collated to the table below. = never; 2 = rarely; 3 = sometimes; 4 = mostly; 5 = always 1) We all show equal commitment to our objective1 2 3 4 5 2) We all take part in deciding how the work should be allocated1 2 3 4 5 3) We are committed to helping each other learn1 2 3 4 5 4) We acknowledge good contributions from group members1 2 3 4 5 5) We handle disagreements and conflict constructively within the group1 2 3 4 5 6) We are able to give constructive criticism to one another and accept it1 2 3 4 5 7) We all turn up to meetings and stay to the end1 2 3 4 5 8) We are good at making sure everyone knows what is going on1 2 3 4 5 9) When one of us is under pressure, others o ffer to help them1 2 3 4 5 10) We trust each other1 2 3 4 5 11) We remain united even when we disagree1 2 3 4 5 12) We feel comfortable and relaxed with one another1 2 3 4 5 13) We refer to our ground rules and review them when necessary1 2 3 4 5 Stuart (1998, cited in Levin, 2005) |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |TOTAL | |1. We all show equal commitment to our objective | | | | | | | |2. We all take part in deciding how the work should be allocated | | | | | | | |3. We are committed to helping each other learn | | | | | | | |4. We acknowledge good contributions from group members | | | | | | | |5.We handle disagreements & conflict constructively within the group | | | | | | | |6. We are able to give constructive criticism & accept it | | | | | | | |7. We all turn up to meetings and stay to the end | | | | | | | |8. We are good at making sure everyone knows what is going on | | | | | | | |9. When one of us is under pressure, others offer to help them | | | | | | | |10.We trust each other | | | | | | | |11. We remain united even when we disagree | | | | | | | |12. We feel comfortable and relaxed with one another | | | | | | | |13. We refer to our ground rules and review them when necessary | | | | | | | Action planning can occur as a result of the findings. Appendix 6 – De Bono's (1985) ‘6 Thinking Hats’ ModelEdward de Bono considers that the emphasis should be on designing a way forward all the time. The hats are directions of how to think and not descriptions of what has happened. White Hat:[pic]Facts, figures, laws, information, neutral, objective†¦ With this thinking you focus on the data available and are non-judgmental. Look at the information you have, and see what you can learn from it. Look for gaps in your knowledge, and identify what you need to get or take account of. You consider past trends and historical data. You may consider philosophical aspects such as whose truth it is, whose fact is it? Data may need to be supported by evidence.R ed Hat: [pic]Feelings, emotions, hunches, intuition about †¦ Wearing this hat, you consider the issues using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. This may be feedback about your feelings and preferences but also consider how other people might react emotionally. Try to understand the responses of other people who do not have the same information or understanding as you. Black Hat: [pic]Negative, drawbacks, disadvantages, careful, cautious, defensive†¦ This highlights the weak points in a situation or plan. By identifying them, it allows you to eliminate or alter them, or prepare contingency plans to counter them. Consider why something might not work (give reasons, consider past evidence).Black Hat thinking may play ‘devil’s advocate’. It helps you to plan carefully, be prepared and more resilient. This way of thinking helps spot fatal flaws by considering safety and risks before embarking on a course of action. (Some successful people get so used to t hinking positively that often they cannot see problems in advance. This leaves them under-prepared for difficulties. ) Yellow Hat: [pic] Positive, speculative, advantages, benefits, savings of†¦ Consider what is right, why it is good and be constructive. Even in a very difficult or stressful situation find positives, e. g. learning will have taken place. It is an optimistic, sunny viewpoint that is often speculative.It helps you to see the benefits of a situation/decision and the value in it. Yellow Hat thinking is supportive when things seem gloomy and difficult. It finds reasons and logical support, and often links to creativity. Green Hat: [pic] Creativity, ideas, innovation, growth, exploration, alternatives†¦ Green Hat thinking is developing creative solutions to a problem. It may generate completely new ideas and developments or consider possible changes to a situation. It is a freewheeling, non-judgmental way of thinking. Blue Hat: [pic] Organise, control, plan (pro cess, people, agendas)†¦ This hat is often the view of a director or the chair at meetings.They often choose the order or process, summarise the situation and offer conclusions which can be put into practice in the future. This way of thinking is generally cool and considered. When others’ ideas cease, Blue Hat thinking may direct activity to other hats! For new ideas Blue may pass to Green Hat or when contingency plans are needed Black Hat thinking will be engaged, etc. | | Appendix 9: Group Work Check List (to be used after every meeting) Please reflect on the group meeting and check/cross the boxes as appropriate, in order to identify strengths and weaknesses: ? Each member was present at the meeting ? Everyone turned up on time Every member did their part of the work & brought it along ? Every member took a role in the meeting ? Each member in the group had a turn to speak ? Each member in the group participated ? The group members respected and appreciated one anot her’s contributions ? Members of the group were polite to one another ? Disagreement / conflict in the group was resolved during the meeting ? Everyone was clear what they had to do next ? Everyone was clear what they had to bring / present at the next meeting ? It was clear how members could communicate with one another between meetings ? The next meeting date, time and venue was agreed by all members

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Analysis Of George Orwell s 1984 - 1450 Words

Those familiar with George Orwell’s â€Å"1984† will recall that â€Å"Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought.† I recently felt the weight of this Orwellian ethos when many of my students sent emails to inform me, and perhaps warn me, that my name appears on the Professor Watchlist, a new website created by a conservative youth group known as Turning Point USA. I could sense the gravity in those email messages, a sense of relaying what is to come. The Professor Watchlist’s mission, among other things, is to sound an alarm about those of us within academia who â€Å"advance leftist propaganda in the classroom.† It names and includes photographs of some 200 professors. The Watchlist appears to be consistent with a nostalgic desire â€Å"to make America great again† and to expose and oppose those voices in academia that are anti-Republican or express anti-Republican values. For many black people, making America â€Å"great again† is especially threatening, as it signals a return to a more explicit and unapologetic racial dystopia. For us, dreaming of yesterday is not a privilege, not a desire, but a nightmare. The new â€Å"watchlist† is essentially a new species of McCarthyism, especially in terms of its overtones of â€Å"disloyalty† to the American republic. And it is reminiscent of Cointelpro, the secret F.B.I. program that spied on, infiltrated and discredited American political organizations in the ’50s and ’60s. Its goal of â€Å"outing† professors for their views helps toShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984848 Words   |  4 PagesCritical Analysis In the George Orwell’s novel 1984, much of the society is watched and have no privacy of any kind. Every person in the Party is under surveillance. In effect, these people cannot live freely and independently, but it seems to be an impossible task because of of the Party surveillance, and how they limit thinking and manipulate reality. We can similarly see these concerns and their effects in today s society and the ways the novel also acts as a warning for the future. In 1984 a manRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 19841423 Words   |  6 PagesIn the novel 1984 by George Orwell, the Party has many strategies and tactics that help them have complete control of the people of Oceania. The control the Party has maintained gives them the ability to manipulate people as a result. The Party takes away the people’s freedom to have a say in their government and become their own person. They use their power to an extreme against the people rather than to help the people. 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This action by the government compares to the massacre of the Holocaust, which portrayed the act of totalitarianism by aiming discriminationRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 19841029 Words   |  5 Pages Imagine a world where everything you knew had to be forgotten, and you knew nothing more then what was being told to you. In George Orwell’s book 1984 this is exactly the case. Winston Smith, a middle aged man, lives a life already planned for him. Smith works at the Ministry of Truth rewriting the news and other articles to follow the teachings of Big Brother. Big Brother is the leader of Oceania, one of three world powers, and aims to rewrite the past to control the present. O ceania is separatedRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984 Essay1127 Words   |  5 Pagesfirst civilizations of mankind, yet it is difficult find one that is perfect even till today. 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